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1 edition of Microwave detection of lost wells and unknown water-filled voids in coal mines found in the catalog.

Microwave detection of lost wells and unknown water-filled voids in coal mines

Microwave detection of lost wells and unknown water-filled voids in coal mines

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Published by Bureau of Mines, U.S. Dept. of the Interior in [Denver, Colo.], [Springfield, Va. : Available from NTIS .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Coal mines and mining -- United States -- Safety measures,
  • Microwave devices

  • Edition Notes

    SeriesA mining research contract report (Sept. 1984), Mining research contract report
    ContributionsUnited States. Bureau of Mines, United States. National Bureau of Standards. Electromagnetic Fields Division
    The Physical Object
    Pagination86 p. :
    Number of Pages86
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14915307M

    Coal (and lignite) Production Statistics (source: EIA and MSHA) • 33% of all Coal Production in the U.S. is from Underground Mines • 63% of all Coal Produced East of the Mississippi is from Underground Mines – In all states east of the Mississippi, except Indiana and Tennessee, the majority of coal production comes from. The Spoils of Abandoned Mines why Abandoned Mines matter to ground water Many abandoned coal mines and hardrock mines emit acid mine drainage (AMD). This takes place because the rocks associated with both types of mines often contain metal sul-fides, such as pyrite. When the rock or coal deposits are excavated, the sulfides are exposed to.

    A detailed description of various geophysical methods used for void detection is pillar size in coal mines where geological settings, coal characterizations and mining methods have been. In addition, some success in locating water- filled coal-mine cavities at depths of less than 50 feet has been reported using high-resolution P-wave (compressional, i.e., sound waves) reflection seismology techniques (Branham and Steeples, ; Miller and Steeples, ) in which absence of a normally strong coal-bed seismic reflection.

    The estimated range of resistivity variation of coal pillars have been well corroborated with published results. The results prove the efficacy of the ERT technique for detection of old mine workings. Other underground coal mines are laid checkerboard of rooms and pillars (Fig. 2), and the mining operation involves cyclical, step by-step mining sequences. The rooms are the empty areas from which coal has been mined, and the pillars are blocks of coal (generally 40 .


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Microwave detection of lost wells and unknown water-filled voids in coal mines Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Microwave detection of lost wells and unknown water-filled voids in coal mines. [United States. Bureau of Mines.; United States. Get this from a library. Microwave detection of lost wells and unknown water-filled voids in coal mines.

[D R Belsher; United States. National Bureau of Standards. Electromagnetic Fields Division.; Denver Mining Research Center (U.S.);]. Detection of Lost Oil Well Casings and Unknown Water Filled Voids in Coal Mines Through Development of a Microwave Antenna System. The initial evaluation of two potential systems for the location of well casings, voids, and tunnels in coal are described.

The pulse measurement equipment used for the evaluation of the antennas selected for. 5/5/ 7 Electrical Resistivity is a measure of how easily electricity flows through a material Primary properties that affect the resistivity: Porosity: shape, size and interconnection of pores Water content Pore water salinity (electrolytes) Conductivity of minerals (clay mineral and metal content) Resistivity of mine voids will either beFile Size: 1MB.

Roof detection in coal mines based on a priori information constrained inversion method A priori information constrained inversion with inequality constraints. Non-uniqueness of inversion is the drawback for DC resistivity method, which Cited by: ment system in a coal mining area should, at least, includethreesubsystems:minedrainage,watersupply and environmental protection, as discussed above.

Generally, there are three types of water-collecting structure in a coal mining area: (a) artificial relief wells under the mines, which are used to decrease hydraulic pressure directly in. Jurisdictional Problem • Oil and gas wells are regulated by states • MSHA only has jurisdiction over mines – Only when a coal mine is near an oil or gas well is MSHA able to take enforcement actions – Most oil and gas drillers and coal mines have been cooperative in dealing with this potential issue.

the electrical resistance. Mine voids in coal mines are usually encountered as resistiv-ity lows because of the presence of acidic mine water. Other Methods, such as magnetics and ground penetrating radar have been used for detecting subsurface cavities, but can be subject to precision, interference, or depth.

Aniso- tropic Electrical Properties of Coal. IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sensing, V. GE, No. 3,pp. Belsher, D. Detection of Lost Oil Well Casings and Unknown Water Filled Voids in Coal Mines Through Development of a Microwave Antenna System (contract H, NBS).

BuMines OFR, 94 pp. book Methane Most common contaminant in coal mines Found in trona mines; sometimes in potash, limestone, oil shale and salt mines Small amounts in copper, tungsten, iron, gypsum, marble, gold and silver mines Methane Colorless, odorless, tasteless, nontoxic, and highly flammable Much lighter than air, thus found in high areas of mines and at roof.

23rd International Conference on Ground Control in Mining, Morgantown, WV, August 3–5, Author: F. Kendorski (AAI) One of the most dangerous events in underground coal mining is unexpectedly encountering water inrushes from undetected abandoned mines in the same seam. The surest and most confident method is probe drilling either from the mine or [ ].

abruptly change. Energy is absorbed as heat in coal. Figure 3. Energy flow in the void detection problem Scattering of energy occurs when the void or anomaly is small compared with the wavelength. When the traveling primary EM wave (electric field EP) intersects a void or geologic anomaly, secondary EM waves (electric field ES) are formed.

The. A number of water treatment systems are in place, mainly in the gold, coal, nickel, and copper industries. The systems are installed at operational, industrial scale plants, where mine drainage or pit water, waste water from tailing storage facilities, and even “produced water” from coal.

Microwave Technology Can Be Used to Measure Moisture Content of Ores, Coal and Other Minerals By Stephan Nel Microwave technology is used in two ways for measuring moisture content of various types of ores, coal and other minerals. Gases found in the Coal Mines The danger from explosions is ever present in coal mines.

Ignition of naturally occurring methane gas can be disastrous. This gas is known in the pits as firedamp, a mixture of methane gas and air. Methane (CH4) is odorless, tasteless, colorless, and lighter than air which means it is found near the roof of the.

Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content and since the s, has been widely used to generate electricity.

Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine is a 'pit', and.

Usefulness in estimating the potential efficiency of coal cleaning techniques (and only g of coal is required). The microwave system and coal samples. A CEM MDSD® W microwave digestion system, with 12× ml Teflon PFA® lined. Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, 48 (1),pp.

A Publication of the International Microwave Power Institute ABSTRACT This paper reviews the application of microwave energy in coal processing and utilisation. It brings together all of the published work on the microwave treatment of coal. The top four regions are China, which in accounted for just under 50% of world coal production, the USA with a 14% share, India which accounts for 6% and Europe, 4%.

Methane is arguably the most dangerous gas in mining, present both in the mines themselves and also in coal washeries. @article{osti_, title = {Detection of coal mine workings using high-resolution earth resistivity techniques.

Final technical report, September September }, author = {Peters, W.R. and Campbell, T.M. and Sturdivant, V.R.}, abstractNote = {Shallow underground voids resulting from early coal mining and other resource recovery activities over the past several decades are now being.

EPA promulgated the Coal Mining Effluent Guidelines and Standards (40 CFR Part ) inand amended the regulation in, and The regulation covers wastewater discharges from mine drainage, coal storage facilities, and coal preparation plants.methane emission in coal mines.

Emission rates were influenced markedly by the presence of abandoned oil and gas wells in the vicinity of the mine. Such wells appeared to increase the flow rate of methane into the mine by a factor of 2 to 30 in an active mine in the Pittsburgh coal seam.These mines range from simple limpet mines that are magnetically or mechanically attached to an object and detonated with a time fuse (Yugoslavian M) to the highly sophisticated Swedish BGM mine, which employs an advanced mine shape and sophisticated sensors to prevent detection.

Mines are constructed in a wide range of sizes and can.